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 RUSS - Remote Underwater Sampling Stations

RUSS Parameters

Our RUSS units currently sample five critical water quality parameters:


dissolved oxygen




The steps we take to maintain the accuracy of this enormous data base can be found in:
Data Quality Assurance

Produced and distributed by Apprise Technologies, Inc., the Remote Underwater Sampling Station or RUSS unit represents the state-of-the-art in water quality sampling technology. The RUSS unit consists of a floating platform containing solar panels, a series of deep-cycle batteries, and an on-board computer and communications package (RUSS schematic).

A data cable connects the computer to a combination leveling device and sensor package that floats freely below the platform. A buoyancy compensation unit within the leveler is used to move the sensor system up and down the water column; the leveler can sample at user-specified intervals to depths of 100 m with a precision of 0.2 m of a target depth. The leveler is designed to accommodate standard water quality sensor packages (e.g. Yellow Springs Instruments© or Hydrolab© sensors). The sensors transmit data via the communication cable into a memory buffer within the on-board computer, where it can be downloaded on demand via a combination modem/cell phone. RUSS units are thus able to provide near real-time water quality data at user-specified sampling intervals, virtually independent of lake conditions.

For an up close image of a RUSS unit on Lake Minnetonka (with our highly engineered and very effective bird deterrent system) click here

The only effective time limitations to sampling frequencies are the times required for the sensor unit to descend to a specified depth and for the individual sensors to equilibrate. In reality, the relevance of the data is specific to the event being sampled; turbidity, temperature and electrical conductivity might be relevant on a daily basis, whereas oxygen profiles may change hourly. The appropriate sampling interval depends, therefore, on the question being asked. The RUSS units currently in place as part of the Water on the Web and Lake Access projects have been initially programmed to collect 1 m interval profiles at four and six-hour intervals, respectively. The units are active 24 hours a day, seven days per week, during open water and ice-on lake conditions; units are only removed from the lake during freezing and thawing conditions.

In addition to real-time data from the RUSS units, we provide up-to-date information on weather conditions around the metro region.

Here's the business end of a YSI 6820 sonde.
YSI 6820 sonde
A RUSS profiler (without the sonde)
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